A number of acts passed by both the American and the British governments fostered the decline of indentures. Europeans initially attempted to exploit indigenous peoples labor. What were the challenges to state power and expansion? The Dutch. began due to this system. Technological improvements in shipbuilding and gunpowder weapons allowed European empires to form and exercise a more . How did Maritime (sea-based) Empires exert and expand their power? Created by. The check software/printer, which is not password protected, is on the owner's desk in an office that contains company checks and is normally unlocked. The slave trade and the use trade such as the triangular trade were very common during this time-period due to the rise in plantations, causing a diverse region in South America. The, Newtons Laws of Gravitation, Astronomical Charts, Better mapmaking, Astrolabe, Lateen sail, Compass, New ships (caravel, carrack, fluyt), Established Spanish links to Americas and Asia, Harvested cash crops, worked plantations, maintained homes. 1 / 25. The changes in economic policy and increased trade led to innovations in finances, business, and banking. Apart of the Triangular Trade where Africans were on their way to the New World. A surge in agricultural productivity resulted from new methods in crop and field rotation and the introduction of new crops. The bourgeoisie class grew. The owner of Super Pharmacy uses a check software/printer to prepare checks, making it difficult for anyone to alter the amount of a check. the increase in input prices. Coercive Labor Systems - slavery vs. other coercive labor system. Islam was still being spread. THESIS for Explain changes and continuities in systems of slavery in the period from 1450 to 1750. Emergence of Europe as a world economic power. . What were the motivations and consequences of exploration? What happened to the Silk Road in Ming and Qin Dynasties? State expansion and centralization led to resistance from an array of social, political, and economic groups on a local level. Underline the word in parentheses that correctly completes the meaning of each sentence below. Demonstrated tolerance to Hindus and Rajputs and developed strong military and empire. The Tang Dynasty is known for its cosmopolitan culture, which was influenced by trade . A religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that split Catholic Europe, causing the formation of structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. Maybe. In the British North American colonies, Europeans, Natives, and African slaves remained separate classes that rarely mixed. most commonly known as slavery. favor. The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire. Justifications for slavery. The Encomienda system was prohibited. Cash crops were profitable, but required a lot of labor. How did new technology lead to changes in trade & travel? While Russia remained an agricultural society, the West became very commercially active and developed a strong manufacturing base. 1. Key Concepts: 4.3.II.C. Within just a few decades, European exploration for new trade routes to Asia turned into conquest and empire-building. The Tang Dynasty was a Chinese imperial dynasty that ruled from 618 to 907. Explain the continuities and changes in economic systems and labor systems from 1450 to 1750. Some images used in this set are licensed under the Creative Commons through Flickr.com.Click to see the original works with their full license. The cortes of Spain finally abolished the mita in 1812, but it survived at least into the nineteenth century. 1861 was when the serfdom officially ended If I do increase my international equity exposure, I would prefer that the entire exposure consist of securities from Country XYZ. As a result many Incans movd away to Meanwhile, the population of forced laborers increased, further expanding the wealth gap. Lavina Company is a small business that has separated the duties of cash receipts and cash disbursements. American Food Services, Inc., leased a packaging machine from Barton and Barton Corporation. Match. Elisabeth Tarrillion, a management consultant, was hired by Shoe Crafter, Inc. to analyze data provided by the Human Resource, Budget, Accounting, and Payroll Departments. Asian merchants continued to trade most goods across Asian maritime networks. revolts or 272.5 KB. The expansion of trade on a global scale expanded both the upper elite class and the lower labor class. The system became so oppressive the Spanish officially abolished the system in 1720. Many people who left their villages for mita labor under the Spanish never returned. role/purpose However, over time, much of the indigenous peoples land was stolen by whoever led the encomienda. The worldwide transformation into a trade-based economy using gold and silver is known as the, -As a result of increased trade and mining, prices also increased across the board. His rule is seen as the epitome of absolutist monarchy, limited monarchy (constitutional monarchy). No other European merchants could enter Japanthose that tried were executed. The demand for exploration led to new technological innovations. AverageHiringCost,PerHire,ByCategory. At the bottom was the largest class of peasants, many of whom sank into debt and were forced into serfdom. Rise of a global trade network. The English. Labor systems grew and changed in response to the demand for labor and goods, Spanish settlers in the Caribbean set up the encomienda system, a form of forced labor, in which Spaniards demanded labor from conquered Native inhabitants, Favored Spanish immigrants to the New World forced Native Americans to work in mines, landed estates, and public works, Due to the brutality of this system, Spanish officials changed it to the repartimiento system, in which Natives were forced to provide labor for Spanish projects, but for a limited amount of time for which they were compensated, Ultimately this system was unsustainable, which led Europeans to develop the slave trade, Europeans adapted and expanded the African slave trade, using Africans to work in forced labor in the New World, By the 1500s, when Portugal began exploring the west coast of Africa, tribes had already been engaged in slave trade for hundreds of years, African tribes kidnapped members of other tribes and sold them into slavery to Europeans, who shipped them to the Americas on the deadly Middle Passage, Most slaves were sent to the Caribbean to replace other slaves who died under the brutal conditions; a comparably small amount of slaves was sent to North and South America, Slaves were put to work growing cash crops (sugar, tobacco, cotton, and coffee), the profits of which ultimately benefited European powers, Europeans then sold manufactured goods such as guns to African tribes offering slaves, and the trade began again, The collapse of major empires could lead European powers to establish hierarchical labor systems in which peasants were bound to provide labor, Following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Russia developed a system of serfdom to maintain the wealth of the small nobility and monarchy; serfs, or peasants, were forced to work on large estates, Serfs typically lived together in communes, which provided extended kin networks to help workers survive under harsh conditions, In 1649, the Russian government legally bound serfs to nobles and the tsar, or king. Ultimately, the exchange of new food staples increased the population of Africa, but in parts of West Africa, the population suffered as people were taken. peoples. The Spanish. They were called Cossacks. In what ways did Europe's interest in trade affect the population? English king who ruled with absolute power. After their terms of service ended, most indentured servants stayed in the Americas. By the 1670s, the colonists and Natives had largely co-existed. A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Cultural and Intellectual Developments. How did social hierarchies change in this time? Economic systems include what types of goods societies produce, how they produce them, and how wealth and resources and wealth are across the population. The Labor System was ran by 12the Spanish and it rewarded conquerors with the labor of conquered non-Christian peoples. Unit 1: Global Tapestry. Cash crop agriculture: Europeans first produced cash crops on large commercial plantations on the islands (Canary, Cape Verde, and the Azores) of the Western African coast in the 15th century. How did Ottoman expansion change the empire's social structure? Slavery was a major driver of maritime trade relations. 1450-1750. On the backs of millions of slaves, sugar eventually outpaced silver as the most profitable good at the time. a form of government where the monarch has the power to rule their land freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. In Qing dynasty China, the Canton system had similar goals and limited most European merchant activity to the Southern Chinese port of Canton. If they could fast a quicker route to Asia, profits would balloon and religious ideologies would spread. the This debt prevented them from ever leaving and reduced the indebted farmers to positions not much different from enslaved peoples. European society was ruled by a royal family that gained enormous wealth from trade and corruption. Before 1450, Europeans did not play a prominent role on the global stage, but after 1450, Europeans were the main puppeteers of the global economy. Flashcards. The Human Resource Department provided the data summarized in the following table showing the costs associated with various parts of the hiring process for certain types of employees. Swift Ellis, Inc., manufactures running shoes. rebellions Question 2. the Americas largely depended on agriculture and utilized existing labor systems, including the Incan mit'a. Americas that was in the process of A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. African People who were brought to the Leadership class , week 3 executive summary, I am doing my essay on the Ted Talk titaled How One Photo Captured a Humanitie Crisis https, School-Plan - School Plan of San Juan Integrated School, SEC-502-RS-Dispositions Self-Assessment Survey T3 (1), Techniques DE Separation ET Analyse EN Biochimi 1. It was based on the holding of land in exchange for service or labor. Encomienda: Spanish monarchs gave control over large territories (encomienda) to people they felt had served Spain and the monarchyusually successful conquistadors. (T/F). Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Coercion, Plantation zone, Plantation Complex and more. The days' sales in inventory ratio is calculated by dividing cost of goods sold by the average merchandise Freedom was nearly unattainable. Barton and Barton completed construction of the machine on January 1, 2016. Although the world's productive systems continued to be heavily centered on agricultural production throughout this period, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes. However, vulnerable populations like the poor sometimes found themselves coerced into signing the contracts. Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in the 15th century, the Potosi mine in modern Bolivia became one of the worlds largest single sources of silver. coercive labor systems in unit 4 - (1450-1750) started during this period, partly because of the clear cut racial differences between africans and the europeans who bought them, slaves came to be viewed as a transferable product (chattel). Women in the Ottoman Empire also experienced some expanded freedoms. The Cossacks under Yemelyan Pugachev rebelled against, South Asia, which includes modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, has a majority population of Hindus and a strong minority of Muslims. Slaves were captured, transported to holding pens (Points of No Return), and then crammed on ships for the. Labor systems grew and changed in response to the demand for labor and goods. The technique of enhancing immunity by exposing patients to dried mucous taken from those already infected. . A sample of size n = 15 has variance s2s^2s2 = 35. Largely a kingdom of city-states that worked for mutual benefit, the Maya were able to build large temples, cities, and trade networks. In 1494, they signed the, The Spanish conquistadors brought down the thriving Aztec and Inca empires within a few decades. In order to prevent white and black oppressed groups from conspiring, the Virginia government wielded racist policies to drive a wedge. 5. Between 1450 and 1750, the Americas began to mark their place in the world, proving they were just as relevant as Europe, Africa, or Asia. Europeans introduced exploitative labor systems to maximize commercial profits. New technology More exploration Columbian Exchange, New foodstuffs increased the population everywhere, Except for the Americas where disease decimated everyone , Migration of people Spread of religion, new syncretic cultures, Integration of the west trade was actually global new Maritime (sea-based) powers, Mercantilism & capitalism became predominant economic policies, The new global economy had long-lasting effects, European middle class gained wealth Industrialization possible, Prosperity funding for arts and architecture, Slave trade intensified as demand for labor increased, Other coerced systems created (encomienda, mita), Social class based on race & ethnicity, first time ever, Transport paid in exchange for 7 years of unpaid labor, Development of European colonies overseas, Opening of new trade routes over the Atlantic and Pacific, Population growth, which increased demand for goods, Vodun - West African spiritualism brought to caribbean, Candomble - dance to honor the gods, Bantu + Brazil, Virgin of Guadalupe - Indigenous + Catholic, Queen Nzingas rebellion in modern-day Angola, Pueblo & Apache Revolt in present-day New Mexico, Gloucester County Slave Rebellion (Virginia), Glorious Revolution (Catholic vs. Protestant in England). Latisha has put a password in place that allows only the boss access to the file where pay rates are changed and personnel are added or deleted from the payroll. What did Spain and Portugal still have control of? For example, they forced all men to wear their hair in. Finally, Europeans built massive military strength because of trade profits and access to new weapons. As of January 1, 2020, Abernethys land had a fair value of$90,000, its buildings were valued at $160,000, and its equipment was appraised at$180,000. Unit 4: Labor Systems, 1450 - 1750 C. Encomienda Chattel Slavery Russian Serfdom Define the labor system Include the general role/purpose Were there revolts or rebellions associated with it? road work and military service. On September 19, 1676, they burned the colonial capital of Jamestown, Virginia to the ground. Maritime trade would prove to be far more economically efficient. New languages developed as a blend of different dialects, such as Creole. Test. Many revolts sprung up against land owners The state with the most access to trade could be the most powerful. The useful life of the machine was expected to be four years with no residual value. Inflation as a result of increase in gold and silver. Below the royals was a second class of the nobility, a small wealthy group that owned most of the land. 4. after they realized they were being exploited. ed with Monty Frost's tax-deferred retirement account is invested entirely in equity securities. s 1 / 6. rights just as a free citizen would have such Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America. Was there a faster route going west? The system was meant to curb exploitation but actually made the exploitation of Native Americans worse. Mita under the Spanish: Under the Spanish, Mita became a system of exploitation. They often represent the gradual removal of land from peasant ownership and a type of feudalistic order where the owners of would have agreements of loyalty but would retain control over the actual land. **Example 1**. The Portuguese led the way to Sub-Saharan Africa and present-day China, India, Indonesia, but their first to market advantage didnt last long. An external challenge to the state usually comes from neighboring states or other colonizing forces in the region. The examination system has, from the Tang dynasty onward, created a strong centralized and fully functional civil service in place of an aristocratic elite with a territorial base of power. to slavery except for the slaves (more or less Encomienda System - American Feudalism. as the workers began to defend their rights . Those who could not pay their debts in Europe were often forced into servitude in the Americas to pay back what they owed. The Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan only allowed the Dutch to trade in Japan through one port. Repblica de Indios were required to supply labor through the mita system to American silver mines. The Spanish, Portuguese, French, English, and Dutch had to find another route in order to remain competitive, so they invested in exploration. Increased trade between Africa and Asia. Continuity/Change Over Time During the 1450's to 1750's the Americas were evolving at a constant rate. Encomienda and hacienda were quasi (partially) feudal systems imposed by the Spanish on indigenous peoples in the Caribbean and other Spanish-conquered lands in the Americas and the Philippines. The movement of goods and people had regional consequences. In order to resist the Portuguese. state/empire The development of khanates in Central Asia. 4. A slave who ran away from his or her master. Armies grew and warfare technology advanced. These diseases killed up to 90% of the population. Over Encomienda labor, Ch DBQ #3 Evaluate the extent to which states in the period 14501750 practiced religious tolerance, Causation in European Exploration Activity 1, Managing Engaging Learning Environments (D095), Educational Psychology and Development of Children Adolescents (D094), Success Strategies for Online Learning (SNHU107), Medical/Surgical Nursing Concepts (NUR242), Health-Illness Concepts Across the Lifespan I (NUR 1460C), Concepts Of Maternal-Child Nursing And Families (NUR 4130), Legal Issues in Information Security (C 841), Financial Statement Analysis/Business Valuation (ACC345), Maternity and Pediatric Nursing (NUR 204), Professional Application in Service Learning I (LDR-461), Advanced Anatomy & Physiology for Health Professions (NUR 4904), Principles Of Environmental Science (ENV 100), Operating Systems 2 (proctored course) (CS 3307), Comparative Programming Languages (CS 4402), Business Core Capstone: An Integrated Application (D083), A&P II Chapter 21 Circulatory System, Blood Vessels, General Chemistry I - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes, Logica proposicional ejercicios resueltos. The Atlantic System c. The Middle Passage d. The Sea Road AP WORLD HISTORY ULTIMATE REVIEW PACKET UNIT 4 (1450-1750) The following graph illustrates the combination of capital and labor (point A) that minimizes the firms cost of producing 5,000 pairs of shoes. The work included various tasks like growing food for those who lived in cities, building food storage, or repairing infrastructure. Their first significant cash crop was sugar cane, which they learned to grow from contact with Muslims in the Mediterranean region during the Crusades. The Maya and Aztecs each dominated a region of Mesoamerica between 250 CE and 1550 CE. Their technological advancements caused them to emerge as a gunpowder empire with their hands on trade. For each of these five separate cases, identify the principle(s) of internal control that is violated. Although the adopted political traditions in China, the Qing were committed to making the Manchu culture dominant. Chattel slavery: Societies throughout history have used slave labor. Heres a few examples of how states were challenged between 1450-1750: After the British and Dutch pushed the Portuguese out of India, they turned their attention to expanding their role in the African slave trade. Colonial economies centered around mining and cash crop agriculture. The owners of these lands turned them into large estates called haciendas for economic production. association formed by investors or shareholders for the purpose of trade, exploration and colonization. The colonists defeated the Natives after 14 months of bloody rebellion. Often times, Han men would side with the Qing and carry out mass murders of Han men refusing to wear the Manchu hairstyle. Mughal Empire tomb dedicated to a shah's wife, Hindu practice of suicide of widows by jumping on husband's pyre, Finished the process of expelling Mongols - centralized czar's power, Russian nobility, resisted attempts at modernization, Russian ruler who westernized Russia - desired warm water port. Labor Systems: c. 1450 - c. 1750. Power and profit were the primary motives as Europeans conquered the Americas and built trading empires across Africa and Asia. Pugachvs rebellion was a result of serfdom. This is the period in Africa where European contact starts. 1450-1750 indentured servants were often of European descent (migration from Europe to the New World) however they were replaced . The spread of Islam into East Asia. grandson of Babur; ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556-1605. In North America, the Spanish had control of the southwest regions, central America, and Florida. Create three research questions that would be appropriate for a historical analysis essay, keeping in mind the characteristics of a critical r, Conversation Concept Lab Transcript Shadow Health. People will always find a way to challenge state power, especially when survival is at stake. commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. Peoples of the Russian empire who lived outside farming villages, often as outlaws. Flashcards. associated with The people who used and exploited Without the slave trade, African kingdoms would have continued to strengthen and could have prevented centuries of turmoil in the region. contradict the hypothesis that 2\sigma^22 = 50? labor system Feudalism was a social, economic, and political system that was prevalent in Europe during the Middle Ages. Browse the PBS collection Africans in America: Part 1 to see information and primary sources for the period 1450 through 1750. . Sold as goods. Both allowed social elites to control nearly all the economic resources and labor of individuals who lived on their lands or assigned regions. lose significance? Different treatment for different children also must be taken into account when considering how a person's gender helps to determine personality. Read through the entire project before you begin doing any work. During that time, however, the market in Country XYZ has outperformed all other markets, even our own. Match. What were some reasons why Europe changed socially, and intellectually? Between 1492 and 1750, the Spanish created settlements along the coasts of Central and South America, each growing profitable crops or mining for precious metals. Well skip *(desert, $\underline{{dessert}}$)* so we wont be late to the movie. European colonizers who traveled to the Americas blazed new and disturbing paths, such as the encomienda system of forced labor and the use of tens of thousands of Africans as slaves. There's a big difference between the rich and poor. Explain how each of Frost's comments can be countered by using an argument from standard finance. Coercive Labor Systems - slavery vs. other coercive labor system. system? There were more military successes. Terms in this set (81) . Sutton Company has two employees handling acquisitions of inventory. honor the empire, usually Spanish and Portuguese influence spread across politics, economics, and society in the Americas. Unit: 1450 - 1750 Renaissance and Reformation. Spain, Portugal, and the creation of a global economy (Opens a modal) Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. Adam Smith . Africa was targeted for labor in the Americas because Indigenous populations were decimated by disease and were able to escape with knowledge of the land and the ability to blend in with other Natives. Student exploration Graphing Skills SE Key Gizmos Explore Learning. The last stand against colonization was led by Metacom, also known as his colonial name King Phillip. Global trade was insanely profitable and new elite classes enjoyed this wealth. Besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, English Queen who ruled for 44 years and provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity, By the 1500's this was more of a union of territories. These new markets were profitable, but could only be sustained with a lot of cheap or free labor. Serfs were obliged to furnish labor services or money payments as the lord saw fit. Flashcards. there Prepare consolidation worksheet entries for December 31, 2020, and December 31, 2021. Some African rulers were complicit in the slave trade. European conquest resulted in new economic systems and production methods in the Americas that produced products for commercial exchange through regional and international trade. Families were separated and there was a gender imbalance because more men were taken than women. The Printing Press. Europeans were primarily motivated by money, religion, rivalry, and conquest. The most immediate effect on indigenous communities was the massive depopulation caused by disease. The theory developed in early modern England and spread elsewhere that royal power should be subject to legal and legislative checks. A contract 2 individuals sign in which one CONTINUITIES in global migrations from the 1450-1750 time period. slowly gave rise to hereditary slavery, which slave owners took . 18th century, but in September of 1721, (peasants) to eventually buy land and gain Portuguese prince who was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents, Portuguese ship that was small but strong. Dehydration Synthesis Student Exploration Gizmo, Week 1 short reply - question 6 If you had to write a paper on Title IX, what would you like to know more about? This is whats known as the. The labor systems established during 1450-1750 were key factors in how they were able to do so. The most dramatic social changes happened in the Americas because of the influx of Europeans, decimation of Indigenous, and explosion of the African slave trade. Some women, such as Roxelana, climbed the social ladder from slave to wife of the Ottoman ruler Suleiman the Great.
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